The Classic Setup.

How it works (in a nutshell)

from turntable

The styli (needle) on your turntable picks up vibrations from the grooves in your record & turns them into a signal.

to amplifier

That signal from your record is weak & can't be heard, so the phono stage in your amp boosts it up to normal line level.

to speakers

Your speakers have no power, so they get their juice & the signal from your amp to create sweet, sweet music to your ears.

Microscopic view: Stylus in the record groove.